In Counselling and Psychotherapy, modality generally refers to the theoretical school of practice that is being followed (for example, humanist; existential; attachment; cognitive behavioural; psychodynamic, object-relations).
The term is sometimes used to distinguish between individual therapy, couple, family and group therapies but we use “format” for that distinction though perhaps “format” is now coming to be used for the distinction between in person therapy and other forms like telephone, messaging, online video therapy and bibliotherapy (therapy by reading, generally instructive texts though occasionally prescribed general literature).

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Modalities, and the organisations within modalities, have had very different attitudes to outcome/change measurement which is understandable but has often been more instinctive or organisationally conservative rather than well argued. What we argue in Chapter 1 is:
“However, scores on different measures show strong correlations with each
other despite theory differences and we believe it is no longer credible for any
modality to argue that there are no measures appropriate for their work and
we believe only a tiny minority of clients would accept this argument.”

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Chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9: comes up a lot!

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